So, when I look at a laptop with an RTX3060 GPU in it, can you tell just by the model number which one is actually included?Sheesh. It's just model numbers. What matters are the performance, power, and cost.
People who read reviews, look at benchmarks will know there are potentially 3+ variants, all called the 'RTX3060' and all vary by speed, wattage, memory bus and included memory...
Same deal with the RTX4080, if the only public shown difference is the RAM size, the public perspective that will be the only difference. However, learned folks will know there is a big difference between the 12GB and 16GB models, including speed, wattage, memory bus width, CUDA/RT core count, etc.
All this allows is for SI's (System Integrator) like HP, Dell, Lenovo, etc to sell machines with a 'RTX4080' at a premium whilst providing the not-so premium version included, and they haven't violated any advertising laws at all, but are taking advantage of lack of knowledge on the consumers part to make that sweet, sweet profit.